Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Warrants and Options Valuation

Warrants and Options Valuation
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2022
Warrants And Options Valuation [Abstract]  



The Company calculates the fair value of warrant and stock-based compensation awards granted to employees and nonemployees using the Black-Scholes option-pricing method. If the company determinates that other methods are more reasonable, or other methods for calculating these assumptions are prescribed by regulators, the fair value calculated for the Company’s stock options could change significantly. Higher volatility and longer expected lives would result in an increase to stock-based compensation expense to non-employees determined at the date of grant. Stock-based compensation expense to non-employees affects the Company’s selling, general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses.


The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the use of highly subjective and complex assumptions, which determine the fair value of stock-based awards. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option-pricing method for the periods ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 are set forth below:


    For the period ended  
    June 30,
    June 30,
Expected dividend yield     0.00 %     0.00 %
Expected stock-price volatility     54.97% - 127.09 %     54.97% - 127.15 %
Risk-free rate     1.09% - 3.16 %     0.70% - 2.82 %
Term of options     5-10       5-10  
Stock price     $0.03-$2.70     $ 0.29  


Expected term. The expected term represents the period that the stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding. The Company’s historical share option exercise experience does not provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate an expected term because of a lack of sufficient data. Therefore, the Company estimates term by using the simplified method provided by the SEC. The simplified method calculates the expected term as the average of the time-to-vesting and the contractual life of the options.


Expected volatility. As the Company’s common stock has never been publicly traded, the expected volatility is derived from the average historical volatilities of publicly traded companies within the Company’s industry that the Company considers to be comparable to the Company’s business over a period approximately equal to the expected term.


Risk-free interest rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield in effect at the time of grant for zero coupon U.S. Treasure notes with maturities approximately equal to the expected term.


Expected dividend. The expected dividend is assumed to be zero as the Company has never paid dividends and have no current plans to pay any dividends on the Company’s common stock.


In addition to the assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, the Company also estimates a forfeiture rate to calculate the stock-based compensation for the Company’s equity awards. The Company will continue to use judgement in evaluating the expected volatility, expected terms and forfeiture rates utilized for the Company’s stock-based compensation calculations on a prospective basis.